systemd

Testing systemd using sanitizers

To catch the nastier kind of bugs, you can run your code with Address Sanitizer and Undefined Behavior Sanitizer. This is mostly done automagically by various CI systems for each PR, but you may want to do it locally as well. The process slightly varies depending on the compiler you want to use and which part of the test suite you want to run.

gcc

gcc compiles in sanitizer libraries dynamically by default, so you need to get the shared libraries first - on Fedora these are shipped as a separate packages (libasan for Address Sanitizer and libubsan for Undefined Behavior Sanitizer).

The compilation itself is then a matter of simply adding -Db_sanitize=address,undefined to meson. That’s it - following executions of meson test and integrations tests under test/ subdirectory will run with sanitizers enabled. However, to get truly useful results, you should tweak the runtime configuration of respective sanitizers; e.g. in systemd we set the following environment variables:

ASAN_OPTIONS=strict_string_checks=1:detect_stack_use_after_return=1:check_initialization_order=1:strict_init_order=1
UBSAN_OPTIONS=print_stacktrace=1:print_summary=1:halt_on_error=1

clang

In case of clang things are somewhat different - the sanitizer libraries are compiled in statically by default. This is not an issue if you plan to run only the unit tests, but for integration tests you’ll need to convince clang to use the dynamic versions of sanitizer libraries.

First of all, pass -shared-libsan to both clang and clang++:

CFLAGS=-shared-libasan
CXXFLAGS=-shared-libasan

The CXXFLAGS are necessary for src/libsystemd/sd-bus/test-bus-vtable-cc.c. Compilation is then the same as in case of gcc, simply add -Db_sanitize=address,undefined to the meson call and use the same environment variables for runtime configuration.

ASAN_OPTIONS=strict_string_checks=1:detect_stack_use_after_return=1:check_initialization_order=1:strict_init_order=1
UBSAN_OPTIONS=print_stacktrace=1:print_summary=1:halt_on_error=1

After this, you’ll probably notice that all compiled binaries complain about missing libclang_rt.asan* library. To fix this, you have to install clang’s runtime libraries, usually shipped in the compiler-rt package. As these libraries are installed in a non-standard location (non-standard for ldconfig), you’ll need to manually direct binaries to the respective runtime libraries.

# Optionally locate the respective runtime DSO
$ ldd build/systemd | grep libclang_rt.asan
        libclang_rt.asan-x86_64.so => not found
        libclang_rt.asan-x86_64.so => not found
$ find /usr/lib* /usr/local/lib* -type f -name libclang_rt.asan-x86_64.so 2>/dev/null
/usr/lib64/clang/7.0.1/lib/libclang_rt.asan-x86_64.so

# Set the LD_LIBRARY_PATH accordingly
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib64/clang/7.0.1/lib/

# If the path is correct, the "not found" message should change to an actual path
$ ldd build/systemd | grep libclang_rt.asan
        libclang_rt.asan-x86_64.so => /usr/lib64/clang/7.0.1/lib/libclang_rt.asan-x86_64.so (0x00007fa9752fc000)

This should help binaries to correctly find necessary sanitizer DSOs.

Also, to make the reports useful, llvm-symbolizer tool is required (usually part of the llvm package).

Background notes

The reason why you need to force dynamic linking in case of clang is that some applications make use of libsystemd, which is compiled with sanitizers as well. However, if a standard (uninstrumented) application loads an instrumented library, it will immediately fail due to unresolved symbols. To fix/workaround this, you need to pre-load the ASan DSO using LD_PRELOAD=/path/to/asan/dso, which will make things work as expected in most cases. This will, obviously, not work with statically linked sanitizer libraries.

These shenanigans are performed automatically when running the integration test suite (i.e. test/TEST-??-*) and are located in test/test-functions (mainly, but not only, in the create_asan_wrapper function).